Jim Bowie bodne Louisianskeho bankára svojim slávnym nožom

Jim Bowie bodne Louisianskeho bankára svojim slávnym nožom

Potom, čo sa súboj 19. septembra 1827 zmení na totálnu bitku, Jim Bowie odhalí bankárovi v Alexandrii v Louisiane ranú verziu svojho slávneho Bowieho noža. Skutočným vynálezcom Bowieho noža však pravdepodobne nebol Jim Bowie, ale skôr jeho rovnako bojovný brat Rezin Bowie, ktorý údajne prišiel s dizajnom po tom, ako bol takmer zabitý v začarovanom boji s nožmi.

Bratia Bowieovci bojovali viac ako typický hraničiar tej doby, ale také násilné duely neboli neobvyklými udalosťami na neskrotnom okraji americkej civilizácie. Na začiatku devätnásteho storočia väčšina hraničiarov uprednostňovala na boj nože pred zbraňami a Bowieho nôž sa rýchlo stal jedným z obľúbených. Rezin Bowie vynašiel takú škaredo vyzerajúcu zbraň, že samotný pohľad na ňu pravdepodobne odradil mnohých potenciálnych lupičov a útočníkov.

Dizajn sa trochu líšil, ale typický Bowieho nôž mal 9 až 15 palcovú čepeľ naostrenú iba na jednej strane po veľkú časť svojej dĺžky, aj keď zakrivený hrot bol na oboch stranách naostrený do bodu. Vďaka dvojitej špičke bol nôž účinnou bodnou zbraňou, zatiaľ čo matný okraj v kombinácii s mosadzným chráničom ruky umožňoval užívateľovi podľa potreby skĺznuť rukou po čepeli. Bowie nôž, perfektný nôž na boj zblízka, sa stal zbraňou voľby mnohých západných ľudí skôr, ako v období po občianskej vojne zaujal miesto spoľahlivý rýchlopalný revolver.


Bowie nôž

A Bowie nôž ( / ˈ b uː i / BOO -vid [2] [3] [4] [5] [6]) [a] je vzor bojového noža s pevnou čepeľou, ktorý vytvoril James Black na začiatku 19. storočia pre Jima Bowieho, ktorý sa preslávil používaním veľký nôž pri súboji známom ako Sandbar Fight.

Od prvej inkarnácie nôž Bowie obsahuje niekoľko rozpoznateľných a charakteristických dizajnových vlastností, aj keď sa v bežnom použití tento výraz týka akéhokoľvek veľkého puzdrového noža s krížovým chráničom a sponou. [9] Vzor nožov je medzi zberateľmi stále obľúbený. Okrem rôznych spoločností na výrobu nožov existujú stovky vlastných výrobcov nožov, ktorí vyrábajú nože Bowie s rôznymi druhmi ocele a variácií.


Obsah

Podľa jeho staršieho brata Johna sa James Bowie narodil v Logan County, Kentucky, 10. marca 1796 (historická značka: 36 ° 46 '25 "S 86 ° 42' 10" W). [5] Historik Raymond Thorp v roku 1948 uviedol Bowieho dátum narodenia ako 10. apríl, ale nepodporil to žiadnou dokumentáciou. [6] Bowieho priezvisko bolo vyslovené / ˈ b uː i / BOO -vid. [1] [2] [3] [7] (Niektoré referenčné práce uvádzajú nesprávnu alternatívnu výslovnosť / ˈ b oʊ i / BOH -ee [7] [8] [9] ).

Bowie bol deviate z desiatich detí narodených Reasonovi (alebo Rezinovi) a Elve Ap-Catesbymu (rodenému Jonesovi alebo Johnsovi) Bowiemu. [10] Jeho otec bol škótskeho pôvodu a jeho matka mala waleský pôvod. Jeho otec bol zranený počas bojov v americkej revolučnej vojne. V roku 1782 sa oženil s Elve, mladou ženou, ktorá ho uzdravila. Bowies sa najskôr usadili v Gruzínsku a potom sa presťahovali do Kentucky.

V čase Bowieho narodenia vlastnil jeho otec osem zotročených Afroameričanov, jedenásť kusov dobytka, sedem koní a jedného plemenného koňa. Nasledujúci rok rodina získala 200 akrov (80 ha) pozdĺž Červenej rieky. V roku 1800 tento majetok predali a presťahovali sa do terajšieho štátu Missouri. V roku 1802 sa presťahovali na juh do španielskej Louisiany, kde sa usadili na Bushley Bayou, z ktorej sa čoskoro stala farnosť Rapides. [11] [12] [13]

Rodina sa znova presťahovala v roku 1809, usadila sa na Bayou Teche v Louisiane a v roku 1812 si našla trvalý domov v Opelousas. [14] Bowieove deti, ktoré vyrastali na hranici, pracovali od mladosti a pomáhali čistiť krajinu, sadiť a pestovať plodiny. Všetky deti sa naučili čítať a písať v angličtine, ale James a jeho starší brat Rezin tiež vedeli plynule čítať, písať a hovoriť španielsky a francúzsky. [15] Deti sa naučili prežiť na hranici, od lovu rýb, mäsiarstva, riadenia farmy a plantáží. James Bowie ovládal pištole, pušky a nože [16] a mal povesť nebojácnosti. Keď bol chlapec, jeden z jeho indiánskych priateľov ho naučil laná aligátory. [17]

V reakcii na prosbu generála Andrewa Jacksona, aby dobrovoľníci bojovali proti Britom vo vojne v roku 1812, James a Rezin narukovali do milícií Louisiana na konci roku 1814. Bratia Bowieovci prišli do New Orleans príliš neskoro, aby sa mohli zúčastniť bojov. [18] Po zhromaždení z domobrany sa Bowie usadil vo farnosti Rapides. [12] [19] Živil sa pílením dosiek a reziva a plávaním po zálive na predaj. [12] [20] V júni 1819 sa pripojil k Dlhej expedícii, snahe oslobodiť Texas od španielskej nadvlády. [21] [22] Skupina narazila na malý odpor a po zajatí Nacogdochesa vyhlásila Texas za nezávislú republiku. Rozsah Bowieho účasti nie je jasný, ale vrátil sa do Louisiany skôr, ako inváziu odrazili španielske jednotky. [23] [24]

Krátko predtým, ako starší Bowie zomrel okolo roku 1820, dal Jamesovi a Rezinovi desať otrokov, kone a dobytok. Nasledujúcich sedem rokov bratia spoločne pracovali na rozvoji niekoľkých veľkých majetkov vo farnosti Lafourche a Opelousas. [20] Louisianska populácia rýchlo rástla a bratia dúfali, že využijú jej rastúce ceny pozemkov prostredníctvom špekulácií. Bez kapitálu potrebného na nákup rozsiahlych traktov [25] vstúpili v roku 1818 do partnerstva s pirátom Jeanom Lafittem s cieľom získať peniaze. V tej dobe už USA zakázali dovoz otrokov z Afriky. Väčšina južných štátov poskytla stimuly pre informovanie o nezákonnom obchodníkovi s otrokmi. Informátori mohli za odmenu dostať polovicu z toho, čo dovážaní otroci zarobia na aukcii.

Bowie absolvoval tri výlety do komplexu Lafitte na ostrove Galveston. Zakaždým kúpil pašovaných otrokov a odviezol ich priamo do colnice, aby informoval o svojom vlastnom konaní. Keď colníci ponúkli otrokov na aukciu, Bowie ich kúpil a dostal späť polovicu ceny, ktorú zaplatil, ako to umožňujú štátne zákony. Legálne mohol prepravovať otrokov a ďalej ich predávať za väčšiu trhovú hodnotu v New Orleans alebo oblastiach ďalej po rieke Mississippi. [26] [27] Pomocou tejto schémy bratia vyzbierali 65 000 dolárov, ktoré použili na svoje špekulácie s pôdou. [27] [28]

V roku 1825 sa obaja bratia spojili so svojim mladším bratom Stephenom a kúpili plantáž Acadia neďaleko Thibodaux. Do dvoch rokov tam založili prvý parný mlyn v Louisiane na mletie cukrovej trstiny. [12] [20] [29] Plantáž sa stala známou ako modelová prevádzka, ale 12. februára 1831 ju predali a 65 otrokov za 90 000 dolárov. James a Rezin si so svojimi ziskami kúpili plantáž v Arkansase. [20]

Bowie a jeho brat John boli koncom 20. rokov 19. storočia zapojení do veľkého súdneho prípadu v Arkansase kvôli špekuláciám s pôdou. Keď Spojené štáty kúpili v roku 1803 územie Louisiany, sľúbili, že budú rešpektovať všetky bývalé nároky na udelenie pozemkov francúzskym a španielskym kolonistom. Ďalších 20 rokov sa usilovalo zistiť, komu aká pôda patrí. V máji 1824 Kongres povolil nadriadeným súdom každého územia prejednávať žaloby od tých, ktorí tvrdili, že boli prehliadaní.

Vrchný súd v Arkansase dostal koncom roka 1827 126 žalôb od obyvateľov, ktorí tvrdili, že pozemky kúpili v bývalých španielskych grantoch od bratov Bowieho. Napriek tomu, že vrchný súd pôvodne potvrdil väčšinu týchto tvrdení, rozhodnutia boli zrušené vo februári 1831 po tom, čo ďalší výskum ukázal, že pôda nikdy nepatrila Bowiesovým a pôvodná dokumentácia o poskytnutí pozemku bola sfalšovaná. Najvyšší súd USA potvrdil zvrat v roku 1833. [30] [31] Keď nespokojní kupujúci zvažovali žalobu na Bowiesa, zistili, že dokumenty v prípade boli odstránené zo súdu a zostali bez dôkazov, odmietli sa prípadom ďalej zaoberať. [32]

Bowie sa stal medzinárodne známym vďaka hádke s Norrisom Wrightom, šerifom farnosti Rapides. Bowie podporoval Wrightovho protivníka v boji o šerifa a Wright, bankový riaditeľ, sa zaslúžil o zamietnutie žiadosti o Bowieho pôžičku. [33] Po konfrontácii v Alexandrii v jedno popoludnie Wright vystrelil na Bowieho a potom sa Bowie rozhodol, že bude mať vždy pri sebe svoj lovecký nôž. [34] Nôž, ktorý mal pri sebe, mal čepeľ, ktorá bola 23,5 cm dlhá a 3,8 cm široká. [35]

Nasledujúci rok, 19. septembra 1827, sa Bowie a Wright zúčastnili duelu na piesočisku mimo Natchezu v Mississippi. Bowie podporoval duelistu Samuela Leviho Wellsa III., Zatiaľ čo Wright podporoval Wellsovho protivníka doktora Thomasa Harrisa Maddoxa. Duellisti každý vyslal dve strely a keďže ani jeden z nich nebol zranený, svoj duel vyriešili podaním ruky. [36] [37] Ostatní členovia skupín, ktorí mali rôzne dôvody na to, že sa nemajú radi, začali bojovať. Bowie bol postrelený do bedra, potom čo znovu získal nohy, vytiahol nôž, opísaný ako mäsiarsky nôž, a obvinil svojho útočníka, ktorý prázdnou pištoľou trafil Bowieho do hlavy, pričom pištoľ zlomil a Bowieho zrazil na zem. Wright vystrelil na náchylného Bowieho a minul ho. Ten opätoval paľbu a prípadne Wrighta zasiahol. Wright vytasil palicu s mečom a nabodol Bowieho. Keď sa Wright pokúsil získať svoju čepeľ položením nohy na Bowieho hruď a potiahnutím, Bowie ho stiahol a veľkým nožom Wrighta odpojil. [38] [39] Wright okamžite zomrel. Bowieho, s Wrightovým mečom stále vyčnievajúcim z hrude, opäť zastrelili a bodol ďalší člen skupiny. Lekári, ktorí boli prítomní na súboji, odstránili náboje a oblepili Bowieho ďalšie rany. [40]

Noviny zachytili príbeh a pomenovali ho Sandbar Fight, kde podrobne popísali Bowieho bojové schopnosti a jeho neobvyklý nôž. Svedkovia sa zhodli na tom, že Bowie neútočil ako prvý a ostatní svoj útok zamerali na Bowieho, pretože „ho považovali za najnebezpečnejšieho muža svojej opozície“. [41] Bowieho povesť na juhu bola stanovená ako vynikajúci bojovník s nožom. [29]

Vedci nesúhlasia s tým, či Bowieho nôž použitý v tomto boji bol rovnaký ako ten, ktorý je dnes známy ako Bowieho nôž, vyrobený výrobcom noža v Arkansase, ktorý vytvoril ďalšiu veľkú čepeľ známu ako špáradlo z Arkansasu. Existuje niekoľko správ o tom, kto navrhol a vyrobil prvý Bowie nôž. Niektorí tvrdia, že ho navrhol Bowie, zatiaľ čo iní pripisujú dizajn známym výrobcom nožov tej doby. [42] Avšak v liste adresovanom The Planter's Advocate, Jeho brat Rezin Bowie tvrdil, že nôž navrhol. [43] Mnoho Bowieho rodinných príslušníkov, ako aj „väčšina autorít na Bowieho noži, veria, že ho vynašiel“ Rezin. [44] Vnuci Rezina Bowieho však uviedli, že Rezin dohliadal na svojho kováča, ktorý bol autorom noža. [45]

Po boji Sandbar a následných bitkách, v ktorých Bowie používal svoj nôž v sebaobrane, sa stal Bowieho nôž veľmi obľúbeným. Mnoho remeselníkov a výrobcov vyrobilo svoje vlastné verzie a hlavné mestá starého juhozápadu mali „školy nožov Bowie“, ktoré učili „umeniu rezu, ťahu a úderu“. [46] Jeho sláva a sláva jeho noža sa rozšírili do Veľkej Británie. Na začiatku tridsiatych rokov 19. storočia mnoho britských výrobcov vyrábalo nože Bowie na odoslanie do USA. [47] Konštrukcia noža sa naďalej vyvíjala, ale o Bowieovom noži sa v súčasnosti všeobecne hovorí, že má čepeľ 21,0 cm dlhú a 3,25 cm širokú so zakriveným hrotom, ostrým rezom s falošnými hranami. z oboch strán “a krížový chránič na ochranu rúk užívateľa. [48]

V roku 1828 sa Bowie po zotavení zo zranenia pri boji Sandbar rozhodol presťahovať do Coahuila y Texas, v tom čase štátu v mexickej federácii. [49] Mexická ústava z roku 1824 zakázala iné náboženstvá ako rímskokatolícku vieru a pri prijímaní pôdy dávala prednosť mexickým občanom. [50] Bowie bol pokrstený na rímskokatolícku vieru v San Antoniu 28. apríla 1828, sponzoroval ho alcalde (hlavný správca) mesta Juan Martín de Veramendi a jeho manželka Josefa Navarro. [51] Ďalších 18 mesiacov Bowie cestoval po Louisiane a Mississippi. V roku 1829 sa zasnúbil s Ceciliou Wellsovou. Ale zomrela v Alexandrii, 29. septembra, dva týždne predtým, ako sa mali vziať. [29] [52]

1. januára 1830 odišiel Bowie z Louisiany na trvalý pobyt do Texasu. Zastavil sa na Nacogdoches, na farme Jareda E. Groceho na rieke Brazos a v San Felipe, kde Bowie predstavil úvodný list Stephenovi F. Austinovi od Thomasa F. McKinneyho, jedného zo starých troch stoviek kolonistov. 20. februára Bowie zložil prísahu vernosti Mexiku a pokračoval do San Antonia de Bexar. [29] V tom čase bolo mesto známe ako Bexar a malo 2500 obyvateľov, väčšinou mexického pôvodu. Bowieho znalosť španielčiny mu pomohla presadiť sa v tejto oblasti. [53]

Bowie bol v tom istom roku zvolený za veliteľa Texas Rangers v hodnosti plukovníka. [54] Napriek tomu, že Strážcovia nebudú oficiálne zorganizovaní až do roku 1835, Stephen F. Austin založil skupinu zamestnaním 30 mužov na udržanie mieru a ochranu kolonistov pred útokmi nepriateľských Indiánov. Ostatné oblasti zhromaždili podobné dobrovoľnícke milície a Bowie velil skupine dobrovoľníkov. [55]

Bowie sa vzdal amerického občianstva a 30. septembra 1830 sa stal mexickým občanom po prísľube založiť textilné mlyny v štáte Coahuila y Tejas. [55] Aby splnil svoj sľub, Bowie vstúpil do partnerstva s Veramendim, aby v Saltillo vybudoval mlyny na bavlnu a vlnu. [56] So zaisteným občianstvom mal Bowie právo kúpiť až 11 líg verejnej pôdy. Presvedčil 14 alebo 15 ďalších občanov, aby požiadali o pôdu a previedli ju na neho, čím mu dal špekulácie 700 000 akrov (280 000 ha). Bowie mohol byť prvým, kto prinútil osadníkov požiadať empresario granty, ktoré bolo možné hromadne predať špekulantom ako mal Bowie. [56] [57] Mexická vláda schválila v rokoch 1834 a 1835 zákony, ktoré zastavili väčšinu špekulácií o krajine. [58]

25. apríla 1831 sa Bowie oženil s devätnásťročnou Mariou Ursula de Veramendi, dcérou svojho obchodného partnera, ktorá sa stala viceguvernérom provincie. Niekoľko dní pred obradom podpísal zmluvu o vene, v ktorej sa zaviazal, že svojej novej neveste zaplatí do dvoch rokov od svadby v hotovosti alebo majetku 15 000 pesos (vtedy zhruba 15 000 dolárov, v tom čase 365 000 dolárov [59]) v hotovosti alebo majetku. V tom čase Bowie tvrdil, že má čistú hodnotu 223 000 dolárov (dnes 5 420 000 dolárov), väčšinou v krajine diskutabilného titulu. Bowie tiež klamal o svojom veku a tvrdil, že má skôr 30 ako 35. [60]

Pár postavil dom v San Antoniu na pozemku, ktorý im Veramendi daroval v blízkosti misie San José. Po krátkom čase sa však presťahovali do paláca Veramendi, ktorý žil s rodičmi Ursuly, ktorí im dodávali peniaze. [61] Pár mal dve deti, Marie Elve (nar. 20. marca 1832) a James Veramendi Bowie (nar. 18. júla 1833). [62]

Maria Ursula, jej rodičia a obidve deti zomreli v septembri 1833 na epidémiu cholery, ktorá sa prehnala Juhom a pozdĺž veľkých vodných ciest. [29]

Krátko po svadbe Bowieho fascinoval príbeh „stratenej“ bane Los Almagres (známej aj ako stratená baňa San Saba a stratená baňa Bowie), údajne severozápadne od San Antonia v blízkosti ruiny španielskej misie Santa. Cruz de San Saba. [35] Podľa legendy baňu prevádzkovali miestni Indiáni predtým, ako sa jej zmocnili Španieli. Potom, čo Mexiko získalo nezávislosť od Španielska, záujem vlády o ťažobný potenciál poklesol. Po oblasti sa potulovalo niekoľko pôvodných skupín, vrátane Comanche, Lipan Apache, Tawakoni a Tonkawa. Bez vládnych jednotiek, ktoré by držali nepriateľských domorodcov na uzde, by ťažba a prieskum nerastov neboli možné. Niektorí verili, že potom, čo mexickí občania opustili oblasť, Lipan banu prevzal. [62]

Po získaní povolenia od mexickej vlády vydať sa na expedíciu na indické územie hľadať legendárnu striebornú baňu sa Bowie, jeho brat Rezin a desať ďalších vydali 2. novembra 1831. do San Saba. Šesť míľ (10 km) od ich Cieľ, skupina sa zastavila a rokovala s veľkou nájazdovou skupinou Indiánov - údajne viac ako 120 Tawakoni a Waco a ďalších 40 Caddo. Pokusy o jačmeň stroskotali a Bowie a jeho skupina bojovali o život ďalších 13 hodín. Keď Indiáni konečne ustúpili, Bowie údajne stratil iba jedného muža, pričom bolo zabitých viac ako 40 Indiánov a 30 bolo zranených. [28] [35] [63] Medzitým do San Antonia vbehla partia spriatelených Comanche, ktorá priniesla správu o prepadnutí, ktoré početne prevýšilo počet Bowieho expedície o 14: 1. Občania San Antonia verili, že členovia Bowieho expedícia zrejme zahynula a Ursula Bowie začala nosiť vdovskú burinu. [64]

Na prekvapenie mesta sa pozostalí členovia skupiny vrátili 6. decembra do San Antonia. [64] Bowieho správa o expedícii, napísaná v španielčine, bola vytlačená vo viacerých novinách, čím sa upevnila jeho povesť. [65] Nasledujúci mesiac sa opäť vydal s väčšou silou, ale po dva a pol mesiaci hľadania sa vrátil domov s prázdnymi rukami. [29]

Bowie napriek svojej rastúcej sláve nikdy nehovoril o svojich činoch. [66] Kapitán William Y. Lacey, ktorý s Bowiem strávil osem mesiacov v divočine, ho opísal ako pokorného muža, ktorý nikdy nepoužíval vulgárne výrazy ani vulgarizmy. [67]

Texanské burácanie

V rokoch 1830 až 1832 prijal mexický kongres sériu zákonov, ktoré podľa všetkého diskriminovali anglo kolonistov v provincii Coahuila y Tejas, čím sa zvyšovalo napätie medzi angloamerickými občanmi a mexickými úradníkmi. V reakcii na dunenie mexické jednotky zriadili vojenské stanovištia na niekoľkých miestach provincie vrátane San Antonia de Béxar. [68] [69] Hoci veľká časť armády podporovala administratívu prezidenta Anastasia Bustamanteho, Antonio López de Santa Anna proti nemu v roku 1832 viedol povstanie. [70] Anglo kolonisti v Texase podporovali Santa Annu a generála Josého Antonia Mexiu, ktorý viedol vojakov do Texasu, aby vyhnali veliteľov verných Bustamante. [71]

Po vypočutí, že veliteľ mexickej armády v Nacogdoches José de las Piedras požadoval, aby sa všetci obyvatelia v jeho oblasti vzdali zbraní, Bowie prerušil návštevu Natcheza v júli 1832, aby sa vrátil do Texasu. [29] 2. augusta 1832 sa pridal k skupine ďalších Texanov a vpochodoval do Nacogdoches, aby „predložil svoje požiadavky“ Piedrasovi. [68] Kým sa skupina dostala k budove, v ktorej sídlili mestskí úradníci, zaútočila na nich sila 100 mexických jazdcov. Texasania paľbu opätovali a začala sa bitka pri Nacogdoches. Potom, čo kavaléria ustúpila, začali obliehanie posádky. [68] Po druhej bitke, v ktorej Piedras stratil 33 mužov, mexická armáda v noci evakuovala. Bowie a 18 spoločníkov prepadli utekajúcu armádu a potom, čo Piedras utiekol, pochodovali vojaci späť do Nacogdoches. [29] Bowie neskôr slúžil ako delegát dohovoru z roku 1833, ktorý formálne požadoval, aby sa Texas stal vlastným štátom v rámci mexickej federácie. [72]

O niekoľko mesiacov neskôr zasiahla Texas epidémia cholery. V strachu, že sa choroba dostane do San Antonia, poslal Bowie svoju tehotnú manželku a ich dcéru na rodinné sídlo v Monclovej v spoločnosti svojich rodičov a brata. Epidémia cholery namiesto toho zasiahla Monclovú a medzi 6. septembrom a 14. septembrom Ursula, ich deti, jej brat a jej rodičia na túto chorobu zomreli. Bowie, ktorý bol v obchode v Natchezi, sa dozvedel o smrti svojej rodiny v novembri. Od tej doby silne pil a stal sa „neopatrným v šatách“. [72]

Nasledujúci rok schválila mexická vláda nové zákony umožňujúce predaj pôdy v Texase a Bowie sa vrátil k špekuláciám s pôdou. Bol vymenovaný za pozemkového komisára a mal za úlohu podporovať osídlenie v oblasti, ktorú kúpil John T. Mason. Jeho menovanie sa skončilo v máji 1835, keď prezident Antonio López de Santa Anna zrušil vládu Coahuila y Tejas a nariadil zatknutie všetkých Texanov (vrátane Bowieho) podnikajúcich v Monclovej. Bowie bol nútený utiecť z Monclovej a vrátiť sa do oblastí Angla v Texase. [29]

Anglos v Texase začali agitovať za vojnu proti Santa Anne a Bowie spolupracoval s Williamom B. Travisom, vodcom vojnovej strany, aby získal podporu. Bowie navštívil niekoľko indických dedín vo východnom Texase v snahe presvedčiť neochotné kmene k boju proti mexickej vláde. Santa Anna reagovala na dunenie nariadením veľkého počtu mexických vojakov do Texasu. [29]

Bitka pri Concepcióne

Texaská revolúcia sa začala 2. októbra 1835 bitkou o Gonzales. Stephen F. Austin vytvoril armádu 500 mužov, aby pochodovala proti mexickým silám v San Antoniu s delom, ktoré vyvolalo boj. V tejto domobrane sa niekedy používa názov „texianska armáda“. 22. októbra Austin požiadal Bowieho, teraz plukovníka dobrovoľníckych milícií, a Jamesa W. Fannina, aby preskúmali oblasť okolo misií San Francisco de la Espada a San José y San Miguel de Aguayo, aby našli zásoby pre dobrovoľnícke sily. [73] Skautská strana odišla s 92 mužmi, z ktorých mnohí boli členmi New Orleans Grays, ktorí práve dorazili do Texasu. Po objavení dobrého obranného postavenia v blízkosti misie Concepción skupina požiadala, aby sa k nim pridala Austinova armáda. [74]

V hmlisté ráno 28. októbra viedol mexický generál Domingo Ugartechea proti texaským silám silu 300 peších a jazdeckých vojakov a dve malé delá. [75] [76] Hoci sa mexická armáda dokázala dostať do vzdialenosti 183 m (200 yardov), texaské obranné postavenie ich chránilo pred paľbou. Keď Mexičania zastavili, aby nabili delo, Texianci vyliezli na útes a vybrali niektorých vojakov. Patová situácia sa skončila krátko po tom, čo Bowie viedol obvinenie za zmocnenie sa jedného z mexických kanónov, v tom čase vzdialených iba 73 yardov. Ugartechea so svojimi vojskami ustúpil a bitku o Concepción ukončil. Zahynulo jedno texaské a desať mexických vojakov. [75] Jeden z mužov pod Bowieho velením počas bitky ho neskôr chválil „ako rodeného vodcu, ktorý nikdy zbytočne nemrhal guľkou ani nekazil život, ktorý opakovane napomínal. Chlapci zostaňte v kryte a rezervujte si paľbu, ktorú nemáme. muž k náhrade. " [77]

Grass Boj a ťažkosti s províziou

Hodinu po skončení bitky dorazil Austin so zvyškom texaskej armády, aby začal obliehanie San Antonia de Béxar, kde boli posádkou obsadení generál Martín Perfecto de Cós, celkový veliteľ mexických síl v Texase, a jeho vojská. [78] O dva dni neskôr Bowie odstúpil z Austinovej armády, pretože nemal v armáde oficiálnu komisiu a nemal rád „drobné úlohy prieskumu a špionáže“. [79]

3. novembra 1835 sa Texas vyhlásil za nezávislý štát a bola vytvorená dočasná vláda, pričom dočasným guvernérom bol zvolený Henry Smith z Brazorie. Austin požiadal, aby bol zbavený velenia armády, a Sam Houston bol vymenovaný za veliteľa armády. Edward Burleson bol zvolený za dočasného veliteľa vojsk v San Antoniu. Bowie sa v určitom okamihu postavil pred radu a hodinu hovoril so žiadosťou o províziu. [80] Rada odmietla Bowieho požiadavku, pravdepodobne kvôli pretrvávajúcej nevraživosti ohľadom jeho pozemkových vzťahov. [81]

Houston ponúkol Bowiemu províziu ako dôstojník jeho štábu, Bowie však túto príležitosť odmietol s vysvetlením, že chce byť uprostred bojov. [81] Bowie namiesto toho narukoval do armády ako súkromník pod Fannin. [29] [79] Opäť sa vyznamenal v zápase o trávu 26. novembra. Cós poslal približne 187 mužov, aby pokosili trávu jeho koňom. [82] Keď sa vrátili do San Antonia, Bowie vzal 60 namontovaných mužov, aby zachytili večierok [83], o ktorom sa domnievali, že prepravuje cenný náklad. [82] Mexické jednotky zrýchlili krok v nádeji, že sa dostanú do bezpečia mesta, ale Bowie a jeho jazda ich prenasledovali. Na konci boja mali Texania dvoch zranených mužov, ale zajali mnoho koní a mulov. [83]

Krátko potom, čo Bowie opustil San Antonio, Ben Milam viedol útok na mesto. V nasledujúcich bojoch Texianci utrpeli len niekoľko obetí, vrátane Miliama, zatiaľ čo mexická armáda stratila mnoho vojakov na smrť a dezerciu. Cós sa vzdal a vrátil sa do Mexika, pričom vzal so sebou aj posledné mexické jednotky v Texase. Veriac, že ​​sa vojna skončila, mnoho texaských dobrovoľníkov opustilo armádu a vrátilo sa k svojim rodinám. [84] Začiatkom januára 1836 odišiel Bowie do San Felipe a požiadal radu, aby mu umožnila najať pluk. Opäť bol odmietnutý, pretože „nebol dôstojníkom vlády ani armády“. [85]

Bitka o Alamo

Potom, čo Houston dostal správu, že Santa Anna vedie veľkú silu do San Antonia, Bowie sa ponúkol, že povedie dobrovoľníkov na obranu Alama pred očakávaným útokom. Prišiel s 30 mužmi 19. januára [86], kde našli silu 104 mužov s niekoľkými zbraňami a niekoľkými delami, ale nie veľmi zásobami a malým strelným prachom. [87] Houston vedel, že nie je dostatok mužov, ktorí by držali pevnosť v útoku, a dal Bowiemu právomoc odstrániť delostrelectvo a vyhodiť do vzduchu opevnenie. Bowie a veliteľ Alamo James C. Neill sa rozhodli, že nemajú dostatok volov na presun delostrelectva, a nechceli zničiť pevnosť. 26. januára jeden z Bowieho mužov James Bonham zorganizoval míting, ktorý prijal uznesenie v prospech držania Alama. Bonham uznesenie podpísal ako prvý, druhý potom Bowieho. [88]

Vďaka spojeniu Bowieho kvôli jeho manželstvu a plynulej španielčine mu prevažne mexické obyvateľstvo San Antonio často vybavovalo informácie o pohybe mexickej armády. Keď sa Bowie dozvedel, že Santa Anna má 4500 vojakov a mieri do mesta [88], napísal dočasnej vláde niekoľko listov so žiadosťou o pomoc pri obrane Alama, najmä „mužov, peňazí, pušiek a delového prachu“. [89] V inom liste guvernérovi Smithovi zopakoval svoj názor, že „záchrana Texasu vo veľkej miere závisí od toho, ako sa Béxar nedostane z rúk nepriateľa. Slúži ako hraničná ochrana piketov, a ak by bola v vlastníctvo Santa Anny, neexistuje žiadna pevnosť, z ktorej by ho odrazil v jeho pochode k Sabine. “ [89] List Smithovi skončil: „Plukovník Neill a ja sme dospeli k slávnostnému uzneseniu, že radšej zomrieme v týchto priekopách, než by sme to mali vzdať nepriateľovi.“ [89]

3. februára sa objavil Davy Crockett s tridsiatimi tennessejcami. Neill odišiel 11. februára na dovolenku za svojou chorou rodinou a nechal velenie Travisovi, členovi pravidelnej armády. [90] Bowie bol starší ako Travis s lepšou povesťou a považoval sa za plukovníka, čím prevýšil Travisa, podplukovníka. [91] [92] Odmietol odpovedať Travisovi, ktorý vyhlásil, že muži si zvolia vlastného veliteľa. Vybrali si Bowieho, čo rozzúrilo Travisa. [91] Bowie oslávil svoje vymenovanie tým, že sa veľmi opil a spôsobil chaos v San Antoniu, prepustil všetkých väzňov v miestnych väzniciach a obťažoval občanov. Travis bol znechutený, ale o dva dni neskôr muži súhlasili so spoločným velením, Bowie bude veliť dobrovoľníkom a Travis bude veliť pravidelnej armáde a dobrovoľníckej kavalérii. [29] [91]

23. februára zvony San Fernando spustili poplach na priblíženie sa Mexičanov. Travis nariadil všetky texaské sily do Alamo. [93] [94] Bowie sa ponáhľal zhromaždiť zásoby a stádo dobytka do komplexu Alamo. [95] V strachu o bezpečnosť príbuzných svojej manželky v San Antoniu Bowie pozval svojich bratrancov Getrudisa Navarra a Juany Navarra Alsburyho, ako aj 18-mesačného Alsburyho syna Alija Pereza mladšieho, aby zostali vo vnútri múrov Alamo. . [96] Bowie priviedol do bezpečia pevnosti Alamo aj niekoľko čiernych sluhov, z ktorých niektorí pracovali vo paláci Veramendi. [97] [98] Bowie bol chorý a dvaja lekári, vrátane chirurga z pevnosti, nedokázali diagnostikovať jeho chorobu. [89] Keď bol Bowie pripútaný na lôžko, Travis sa stal jediným veliteľom síl. [99] Santa Anna a jeho armáda začali obliehať Alamo 24. februára. Mexická armáda zdvihla červenú vlajku, aby varovala obrancov, že nebude poskytnutá žiadna štvrť. [100]

Bowie a Travis začali rozosielať kuriérov s prosbami o zásoby a pomoc. [101] Travis poslal na Bowieho koňa Juana Seguina, aby 25. februára prijal posily a dorazilo ďalších 32 mužov. [102] [103] 26. februára Crockett oznámil, že Bowie, aj keď trpel svojim trápením, sa každý deň okolo poludnia plazil zo svojej postele a predstavoval sa obyvateľom Alamo, čo výrazne zvýšilo morálku jeho kamarátov. [104] Tridsaťpäť rokov po páde Alamo označil reportér Louisa „Mojžiša“ Rosea za jediného muža, ktorý „opustil“ texaské sily v Alamo. Podľa reportérovej verzie Roseinho príbehu, keď si Travis uvedomil, že mexická armáda pravdepodobne zvíťazí, nakreslil čiaru do piesku a požiadal tých, ktorí sú ochotní zomrieť, aby vec prekročili. Na Bowieho žiadosť Crockett a niekoľko ďalších preniesli detskú postieľku cez linku, pričom Rose zostali na druhej strane sami. [105] Po jeho uverejnení správu potvrdilo niekoľko ďalších očitých svedkov [106] [107], ale keďže Rose bola zosnulá, príbeh je možné autentifikovať iba podľa slova reportéra, ktorý priznal, že prikrášlil ďalšie články “, a teda mnoho historikov. odmietni tomu veriť. " [107]

Bowie zahynul so zvyškom obrancov Alama 6. marca, keď zaútočili Mexičania. [29] Väčšina nebojujúcich z pevnosti, vrátane Bowieho príbuzných, prežila. [108] Santa Anna nariadila alcalde San Antonia, Francisca Antonia Ruiza, aby potvrdil totožnosť Bowieho, Travisa a Crocketta. [109] Po prvom nariadení, aby bol Bowie pochovaný, pretože bol príliš odvážny na to, aby bol upálený ako pes, [110] Santa Anna neskôr dala Bowieho telo uložiť na pohrebnú hranicu k telám ostatných Texiancov. [109]

Keď bola Bowieho matka informovaná o jeho smrti, pokojne vyhlásila: „Stavím sa, že v jeho chrbte sa nenašli žiadne rany.“ [111] Rôzni očití svedkovia bitky poskytli protichodné správy o Bowieho smrti. Novinový článok tvrdil, že mexický vojak videl Bowieho neseného po skončení bitky prenášať zo svojej izby na lôžku nažive. Vojak tvrdil, že Bowie odsúdil mexického dôstojníka plynulou španielčinou a dôstojník nariadil Bowiemu vyrezať jazyk a jeho stále dýchajúce telo hodiť na pohrebnú hranicu. Tento účet spochybnil mnoho ďalších svedkov a predpokladá sa, že ho vymyslel reportér. [112] Iní svedkovia tvrdili, že videli, ako niekoľko mexických vojakov vstúpilo do Bowieho miestnosti, bajonetom ho a živého odnieslo z miestnosti. [113] Kolovali rôzne ďalšie príbehy, pričom niektorí svedkovia tvrdili, že Bowie zastrelil seba a iní tvrdili, že ho zabili vojaci, zatiaľ čo bol príliš slabý na to, aby zdvihol hlavu. [114] Alcalde Ruiz said that Bowie was found "dead in his bed." [114] According to Wallace O Chariton, the "most popular, and probably the most accurate" [4] version is that Bowie died on his cot, "back braced against the wall, and using his pistols and his famous knife." [114] One year after the battle, Juan Seguin returned to the Alamo and gathered the remaining ashes from the funeral pyre. He placed these in a coffin inscribed with the names of Bowie, Travis, and Crockett. The ashes were interred at the Cathedral of San Fernando. [115]

Despite his continual pronouncements of wealth, Bowie's estate was found to be very small. His possessions were auctioned for only $99.50. [116] His larger legacy is his position as "one of the legendary characters of the American frontier." [22] Bowie left a "frustratingly sparse paper trail" of his life, and for many "where history failed, the legends prevailed." [117] Although Bowie's name and knife were well known during his lifetime, his legend grew after October 1852, when DeBowova recenzia published an article written by his brother John Jones Bowie called, "Early Life in the Southwest—The Bowies." The article focused primarily on the exploits of Jim Bowie. [118] Beginning with that article, "romanticized stories" about Bowie began appearing in national press. [117] In many cases, "these stories were pure melodrama, with Bowie rescuing some naïve planter's son or damsel in distress." [117]

Jim Bowie was inducted posthumously into the Blade Magazine Cutlery Hall of Fame at the 1988 Blade Show in Atlanta, Georgia, in recognition of the impact that his eponymous design made upon generations of knife makers and cutlery companies. [119]

A number of films have depicted the events of the Battle of the Alamo, [120] and Bowie has appeared as a character in each.

From 1956 to 1958, Bowie was the subject of a CBS television series, The Adventures of Jim Bowie, which was primarily set in 1830s Louisiana, although later episodes ventured into the Mexican province of Texas. [121] The show, which starred Scott Forbes as Jim Bowie, was based on the 1946 novel Tempered Blade. [122]

Rock star David Bowie, who was born David Robert Hayward-Jones, adopted the folk legend's surname. Jones changed his last name in the 1960s because he feared confusion with Davy Jones, a member of the already famous The Monkees. He chose the Bowie eponym because he admired James Bowie and the Bowie knife, although his pronunciation uses the BOH -ee ( / ˈ b oʊ i / ) variant. [123]

Bowie County in northeast Texas, and the city of Bowie in Montague County, Texas, were both named in honor of James Bowie. James Bowie Elementary in Corsicana, Texas was also named in his honor.


Coffee with the Hermit

One name comes to mind very quickly when we talk about weapons of the old west. Jim Bowie.

What made Bowie famous was his well known knife and Bowie's willingness to put it to use. They both developed quite a reputation, both good and bad!


After a duel turns into an all-out brawl on this day in 1827, Jim Bowie disembowels a banker in Alexandria, Louisiana, with an early version of his famous Bowie knife. The actual inventor of the Bowie knife, however, was probably not Jim Bowie, but rather his equally belligerent brother, Rezin Bowie, who reportedly came up with the design after nearly being killed in a vicious knife fight.

The Bowie brothers engaged in more fights than the typical frontiersman of the day, but such violent duels were not uncommon events on the untamed margins of American civilization. In the early nineteenth century, most frontiersmen preferred knives to guns for fighting, and the Bowie knife quickly became one of the favorites. Rezin Bowie had invented such a nasty looking weapon that the mere sight of it probably discouraged many would-be robbers and attackers. Designs varied somewhat, but the typical Bowie knife sported a 9- to 15- inch blade sharpened only on one side for much of its length, though the curved tip was sharpened to a point on both sides. The double-edged tip made the knife an effective stabbing weapon, while the dull-edge combined with a brass hand guard allowed the user to slide a hand down over the blade as needed. The perfect knife for close-quarter fighting, the Bowie knife became the weapon of choice for many westerners before the reliable rapid-fire revolver took its place in the post-Civil War period.

Good or bad, the name Jim Bowie will likely be well known for many years to come as a legend in the stories of the Old West.

Coffee on the patio again today. Won't be long before we'll be forced inside because of the 'skeeters.

4 comments:

I will always remember Jim Bowie from the old Westerns on TV. His name is synonymous with The West. That knife would scare the bejesus out of me. I'll be happy to join you before the "skeeters" carry me off.

Hey Linda.
I think that the knife was designed as much for intimidation as anything else. The Army is spraying for the nasty 'skeeters almost daily, so maybe they won't get too bad.
Thanks for stopping by this morning!

So Jim Bowie wasn't such a hero? That knife sounds pretty bad I always thought it was for him to fight off bear.

Hey Jo.
The knife wasn't for bear, but for people. Seemed to work just fine for that, too!
Thanks, sweetie, for dropping by today!


The Bowie Knife Lives On

No one knows what happened to Bowie’s knife. Most likely, it was picked up by one of the men who killed him and either taken back to Mexico or lost or re-swiped at the Battle of San Jacinto, at which Santa Ana’s army was defeated.

This was the “real” Bowie. Probably it was a big knife, with a heavy blade of 10 inches, give or take a few. It probably had a concave false edge, sharpened, and twin quillons. It was a weapon, not a tool, and copies of it became enormously popular in the South and on the frontier. The demand became so great that England’s Sheffield cutlers became a major supplier of Bowies we know of at least 40 manufacturers. There were an additional 40 American firms making them, and some smaller cutlers such as Will & Finck in San Francisco and Searles in Baton Rouge who produced very fine Bowies.

And there were untold thousands turned out by blacksmiths. These were big, crude, and heavy. Confederate soldiers loved to be photographed with colossal Bowies stuck in their belts, but I think mostly this was for the camera. Of all the wounds inflicted in the Civil War, .04 percent were caused by edged weapons, and this includes swords and bayonets. I suspect that bayonetting a Yank or hacking him to death was just a little too grim for all but the most dedicated Rebs.

Also, a Bowie was not useful except as a weapon, and if you were a Secesh infantryman making 30-mile marches at 4 miles per hour, day after day, with not enough to eat, the last thing you needed was 3 pounds of occasionally useful steel stuck in your belt.

After the Civil War ended and the cartridge-firing revolver ascended, the Bowie in its original form became a relic. But it continues to thrive. The Ka-Bar, which is a much-scaled down Bowie, has been in the inventory of our armed forces since 1943. It’s a tool first and a weapon second. The Randall Model 1 All Purpose Fighting Knife has been around the exact same amount of time and served in every war we’ve been in. It, too, is a Bowie.

Collectors love Bowies. If you go to the website of Arizona Custom Knives, which is the biggest purveyor of such, you can see all manner of Bowies from all manner of smiths. There are plain ones and fancy ones, big ones and little ones, ugly ones and graceful ones. All are, I’m certain, of far higher quality than anything Jim Bowie carried or dreamed of.

If you’d like to own one, I suggest the Western Cutlery Model W49, which is that (now defunct) company’s big Bowie. It’s an excellent knife. There are a lot of them around, and some can be had quite cheaply. The Marine Raiders issued it to their members as the V49 during World War II, and Robert Redford carries one in Jeremiah Johnson. From there on, the sky is the limit. If you’d like a Bowie from the legendary smiths Bill Moran, or D.E. Henry, you’ll need to take out a second mortgage to pay for it.

Bowie, by today’s standards, was not an admirable guy, and if Cancel Culture ever finds out about him, he’s done for. But if you admire courage, no one had more. And no one questioned his…and lived.


Jim Bowie

T he name Jim Bowie often evokes images of a large, fierce hunting knife and a desperate battle for Texas freedom at the Alamo. Although he was branded a hero by Texas history, Bowie actually spent most of his life in Louisiana. In the Bayou State, records affirm that Bowie’s aspirations were routinely pursued through forgery, bribery, perjury, and intimidation. Partnering with the pirate Jean Laffite, he ran a contraband slave-smuggling operation, and his illegal land schemes created chaos for land-hungry settlers. In this regard, Jim Bowie can be considered an extreme example of the many ambitious but unscrupulous men of his time and place.

James “Jim” Bowie was born in the spring of 1796 (reported dates vary) in Logan County, Kentucky, to Reason Pleasant Bowie and Elve Ap-Catesby Jones Bowie. His father was of Scottish descent his mother, Welsh. Reason, always seeking frontier opportunities, crossed the Mississippi River in 1800 and settled his family in southeastern Missouri. In 1803, while Thomas Jefferson was working out the details of the Louisiana Purchase, the elder Bowie obtained a Spanish grant of eight hundred arpents—one arpent equals approximately 192 feet—along Bushley Bayou in Catahoula Parish, about thirty miles west of Natchez, Mississippi. There, in this wilderness setting, Jim spent much of his early boyhood alongside his brothers John, Stephen, and Rezin. The family moved once again in 1809 to St. Landry Parish near Opelousas, where they farmed and raised livestock using slaves.

Until British invasion threatened New Orleans, the War of 1812 barely impacted most Louisianans, but the sudden menace resulted in a flurry of enlistments that included Bowie and his brother Rezin. However, on the very day of their enlistment into the Second Division Louisiana Militia, January 8, 1815, Gen. Andrew Jackson repelled the British near New Orleans, effectively ending the war. Disappointed with missing the action, nineteen-year-old James struck out on his own later that same year along Bayou Boeuf in Avoyelles Parish, where he purchased land and slaves on credit and began cutting virgin timber and floating it to downstream markets.

The Schemes

Bowie’s adult behavior revealed an ambitious opportunist who did not permit matters of honesty and moral conduct to stand in the way of personal gain. Congress had abolished the African slave trade in 1808, but expanding agriculture in the Deep South created a greater demand for labor than could be met with domestic slaves. The result was a surge in slave runners, including the mercurial French privateer Jean Laffite. From his headquarters on the Texas coast just west of the Sabine River, Laffite sold his pirated contraband to Bowie, who devised a plan to smuggle them into the Louisiana interior. He then claimed to have captured the illegals and turned them over to authorities for a reward. As per the law, officials then sold the slaves at auction, and Bowie bought them back for resale—this time with a legal title. Dozens of slaves were involved, and Bowie accrued considerable profits during the two years he ran this scheme.
Bowie’s most ambitious ploys stemmed from the chaotic state of Spanish land grants and land titles following the Louisiana Purchase. Compounding the problem, most of the Spanish records had been moved out of the country. Bowie saw an opportunity and began to personally forge Spanish land grants of prime properties in several parts of the state. He then boldly manufactured deeds of sale of the grants to himself. The scale of the ruse was astounding, as he claimed up to 80,000 acres in Louisiana and almost as much again in Arkansas. Bowie’s claims were immediately suspect when he attempted to formally register them, but his conniving and political influences kept the matter alive throughout the 1820s. He was even able to sell some of the counterfeit titles and reap a profit before the scheme eventually collapsed.

The Sandbar Fight

Bowie’s corrupt business practices earned him many enemies in a culture where a slight often ended in a deadly duel. One disagreement involving Rapides Parish sheriff and banker Norris Wright resulted in Wright shooting Bowie point-blank with a pistol. Poorly armed at the time, Bowie survived the deflected shot but vowed to never again be without a large knife in his belt. Accordingly, the legend of the Bowie knife was born, and the stage was set for a gruesome encounter. On September 19, 1827, on a Mississippi River sandbar near Natchez, Bowie was present at a duel between Dr. Thomas Maddox and Samuel Wells III. No one was injured when the principals exchanged shots. The affair seemed over until members of their entourages became embroiled in a melee. Alexander Crain shot Gen. Samuel Cuny. Wright shot Bowie through the lower chest. George McWhorter shot Wright in the side, causing a flesh wound. Bowie drew his famous knife and attempted to chase Wright, but was shot in the thigh by another gunman. Wright and Alfred Blanchard stabbed Bowie with sword canes. In a desperate lunge, Bowie grasped Wright by the collar and thrust his long knife into his enemy’s chest, killing him instantly. The violence ended abruptly, and attending physicians rushed to treat the injured. Cuny and Wright were dead, and Bowie’s recovery took months. A grand jury was convened afterward but handed down no indictments. The brawl made national news and enhanced Bowie’s notoriety.

By the end of the 1820s, Bowie’s land schemes were crumbling on all fronts, and there was an increasing chance he would be held legally accountable. At the same time, his sugar plantation in Lafourche Parish, where he and his brothers attempted to establish the state’s first steam-powered sugar mill, was facing financial ruin. Having made several brief trips to Texas in recent years, Bowie sensed the region held new opportunities and reprieve from his longstanding troubles. In early 1831, he sold most of his remaining assets and moved to the tumultuous, Mexican-owned territory of Texas.

Bowie’s history in Texas continued the drama of his early life. Once again, he became involved in land schemes and shifting politics. He married Ursula de Veramendi, from an affluent Mexican family, on April 25, 1831, only to lose her to cholera two years later. He fought both Indians and Mexican soldiers while trying to force his way into a position of wealth and prominence. His life—along with the lives of 187 other men—ended on March 6, 1836, in defending the Alamo for a new republic of Texas. In spite of his past indiscretions, most of which took place in Louisiana, Bowie lived his final hours as a hero.

Autor

Suggested Reading

Davis, William, C. Three Roads to the Alamo: The Lives and Fortunes of David Crockett, James Bowie, and William Barret Travis. New York: HarperCollins, 1998.

Lindley, Thomas R. Alamo Traces: New Evidence and New Conclusions. Lanham, MD: Taylor Trade Publications, 2003.

Roberts, Randy, and James S. Olson. A Line in the Sand: The Alamo in Blood and Memory. New York: Free Press, 2002.


The Legend of the Bowie Knife

I copied this from my website as I thought our readers here might enjoy it. I have always been fascinated by my favorite style of knife, the Bowie knife, and the history of it.

No knife in history has gained as much notoriety or has been the source of more myths and speculation than the Bowie knife. The modern Bowie is my favorite style of knife but what we call a Bowie knife today bears little resemblance to the original.

The Bowie knife came to fame through a bloody fight in Louisiana in 1827 which became known as the "sandbar fight".

Colonel James Bowie (1796-1836) was a famous soldier, land speculator, slave trader, gambler and, some say, a con man.

James (or Jim) was in a fight in 1826 where a sheriff name Norris Wright fired at James at point blank range but the bullet was deflected and James survived the encounter.

After the fight, James' brother, Rezin Bowie, gave James a large knife for protection in the event he would ever find himself in a similar situation. Understand that in those days people carried single shot pistols that were very unreliable and prone to misfires. The revolver did not become widely available until after 1836.

On September 19, 1827, James was involved in the famous Sandbar Fight near Natchez. There was a duel between Samuel Levi Wells III and Dr. Thomas Maddox. Both men fired at each other and both shots missed. They reloaded and fired again. Again they both missed. They decided that their honor had been satisfied. They shook hands and began to leave when others who were present began to argue and fight.

Alexander Crain shot Samuel Cuny and then James fired at Crain but missed. Jim Bowie's old nemeses from the previous year, Norris Wright, shot Bowie in the chest and James drew his knife and chased after Wright. The Blanchard brothers shot Bowie in the leg and when James fell, Wright and Alfred Blanchard stabbed him several times with sword canes and knives.

Laying on the ground with a sword sticking in his chest, James plunged his knife into Wright's chest killing him and then slashed Blanchard severely. All the witnesses remembered Bowie's "big butcher knife". Even though Bowie had been shot twice and stabbed several times, he recovered and went on to a number of ventures before dying along with 187 other defenders during the fall of the Alamo in San Antonio, Texas on March 6, 1836.

The famous fight was reported in newspapers around the country and the legend of Jim Bowie and his Bowie knife was born. People everywhere wanted a Bowie knife and countless versions of various sizes and styles were made by countless cutlers and blacksmiths.

Word of the famous knife spread to England and cutlery companies in Sheffield were quick to supply the sought after Bowie knives. Thousands were made and sent to the United States.

Nobody really knows for sure what the original Bowie knife looked like but it is pretty certain that what has become known as the Bowie knife today bears little resemblance to the original. The famous knife has been redesigned over the years and was popularized again in 1952 in the Hollywood movie "The Iron Mistress". There have been numerous books, movies and TV shows about James Bowie and his famous namesake knife. Today almost any knife with a blade more than a few inches long and a clip point is often called a Bowie knife.

Many believe the original Bowie knife was made by an Arkansas blacksmith name James Black but this has never been authenticated and it has largely been debunked as a manufactured legend. James Black was a silversmith who moved from Pennsylvania to Arkansas sometime AFTER the first bowies were made. The first claim for him having made a bowie knife was published in 1841, 14 years after the sandbar fight. One knife in particular which has become known as "Bowie No. 1" is claimed to have been made by Black.

However, other experts believe this knife was made in Ohio in the mid 1800s. Black supposedly did not mark his knives with a makers mark and no known knives today can be definitely traced to James Black.

The original Bowie knife was actually designed and commissioned to be made by James Bowie's older brother Rezin Bowie and given to James so that he would never again be caught unarmed. In a letter written by Rezin in 1838 he wrote “The first Bowie knife was made by myself in the parish of Avoyelles, in this state (Louisiana), as a hunting knife, for which purpose, exclusively, it was used for many years”. Rezin went on to describe the knife "The length of the blade was nine and one-quarters inches, its width one and one-half inches, single edged and not curved". The is very different from the modern Bowie knives seen today but does sound like the knife witnesses of the sandbar fight described as "a large butcher knife".

In a recently discovered letter written in 1885, Rezin's granddaughter, Mrs. Eugene Soniat, wrote “This instrument, which was never intended for ought but a hunting knife, was made of an old file in the plantation blacksmith shop of my grandfather’s Bayou Boeuf plantation, the maker was a hired white man named Jesse Clift [sic], he afterwards went to Texas. My mother, Mrs. Jos. H. Moore, then a little girl, went to the shop with her father, heard his directions, and saw Clift make the knife.

Jesse Cifft was a blacksmith living on Bayou Boeuf in Louisiana and was a close friend and neighbor of the Bowies in the 1820s. On April 10, 1827 James Bowie went to Marksville, LA to conduct a business transaction with William Hargrove. A document defining the transaction was written by Herzehian Dunham, the Notary Public in and for the parish of Avoyelles, and was signed by the principals and by witnesses Jesse Cifft and Caiaphas K. Ham. This document serves as further proof that Clifft and Rezin were together at the right place and at the right time.

The knife that Clifft made to Rezin's specifications was later given to James Bowie by Rezin and was very likely the knife that James used in the sandbar fight six months later near Natchez, Mississippi on September 19, 1827.

In the months and years following the sandbar fight, newspapers and novels far and wide regaled the story of the now famous sandbar fight and the legend of Jim Bowie and the Bowie knife were born. It has been said that Jim Bowie did not seek publicity or celebrity but Rezin relished it and basked in the spotlight of his famous brother. As Rezin traveled around the country he had more "Bowie" knives made by various craftsmen. He sometimes presented these knives to friends as special gifts.

It is known that Daniel Searles of Baton Rouge LA, Rees Fitzpatrick of MS, and Henry Schively Jr of Philadelphia made knives for Rezin Bowie. Some were inscribed presentation knives with fancy silver fittings and others were plain. Some of these knives have been authenticated and are in collections today. It is likely that Rezin had others made, maybe by someone in nearly every town he visited at any length. Each maker would have imparted his own style and interpretation to the knife and perhaps Rezin even refined the design himself. The "Bowie" knife could actually be several different knives by different makers.

One of the knives made by Searles was claimed to have been given to Edwin Forrest, a nationally famous actor of the time. Forrest claimed that is was given to him by Jim Bowie and claimed it to be the very knife used at the sandbar fight. There are no markings or inscriptions on the knife and it was not known until many years after James and Rezins deaths so so there is some doubt about the authenticity of the knife. Its blade is twelve inches long with a very slight clip point.

It is noticeable that the Forrest Bowie, as with the Fitzpatrick, Schively and other authenticated Bowies of the period, had no cross guard or clip point as we see in modern "Bowies". It is not known when or where these features first appeared but it is likely that they were additions made by the Sheffield knives imported in the 1830s-1840s. The knives used in the movies and TV shows of the 1950s popularized the modern style of Bowie we usually see today.

Whatever the true facts were and whatever the original knife looked like, the Bowie knife has become a part of American folklore and is one of the most famous knives of all time. Untold numbers of Bowie knives have been made and sold over the last 180 years. Nearly every knifemaker has made one and most collectors of fixed blade knives have at least one in their collection. For that reason, the Bowie knife deserves his spot in knife history as one of the most famous and often copied knives in the world.


Talk Like a Texan: The Pronunciation of Bowie Knife, Jim Bowie, and David Bowie

A pronunciation investigation involving two Bowie men known for living large.

How do you, as a Texan, say the name Bowie? Does it rhyme with Louie, or snowy? Or do you say it differently depending on if you are talking about the Alamo hero, or the British rock star?

According to a dialect survey from Joshua Katz&rsquos North Carolina State University, Texans are among the only Americans to still rhyme Bowie with gooey, though the portion of us who do appears to be shrinking as Ziggy Stardust&rsquos fame eclipses that of Texas&rsquos own James.

With Alamo season upon us, let&rsquos take a look back at Jim Bowie, the knife he made famous, and how he inspired the name of a transcendent English rock star.

It&rsquos safe to say that no blade is more acutely identified with Texas than the Bowie knife. James Bowie sported it on his hip dating back to his swashbuckling days as a land hustler in Arkansas and Louisiana, years before he came to Texas and cemented his national reputation through his death at the Alamo.

The origins of the Bowie knife, also known as an &ldquoArkansas toothpick,&rdquo are obscure and hotly contested. But it is generally agreed that if Bowie did not invent it, he did make it famous, even if there&rsquos a possibility that he didn&rsquot even wield one in his sole experience in a knife fight.

That would be the Sandbar Fight in 1827, a sort of precursor in violent American lore to the Shootout at the O.K. Corral that occurred near Natchez, Mississippi. A pistol duel between two men devolved into a deadly no-holds-barred brawl on a tiny island in the Mississippi River. It involved about a dozen of the duelers&rsquo partisans, two of whom were killed and two more of whom were badly wounded. Bowie was among the wounded, and in fact, his refusal to die in that fight was downright Rasputinesque. He was bonked once over the head with a heavy pistol, shot through a thigh and a lung, and stabbed at least seven times, but managed somehow to fatally stick one of his assailants with a long knife that his brother Rezin had given him for self-protection.

As colorful details of the fight traveled from papers in nearby Natchez to Philadelphia and New York to audiences overseas, the myth of Jim Bowie, knife-fighting frontier folk hero, was born. So was a new form of knife: the long-bladed, curve-pointed, double-edged knife equipped with a hand-protective cross-guard. Historians still debate who invented it&mdashmost claim it was Rezin Bowie, maybe supervising an anonymous blacksmith, or perhaps it was the work of an Arkansas smith named James Black. But as Bowie biographer William C. Davis says, its invention is immaterial, as is whether the knife he used in the Sandbar Fight actually looked like the type given his name. After that day, James Bowie was irrevocably tied to the Bowie knife.

After the brawl, the Bowie knife took on a life of its own. Those knives were something like the assault rifles of their times: popular and controversial. In an age when pistols were unreliable and hard to reload, it was the ideal weapon for close combat &mdash portable, reliable, easy to use repetitively, and very lethal. It was a full-on craze accompanied by much bloodshed, and several Old South states banned them in the years after the fight.

According to the Texas State Historical Association, between the 1830s and the Civil War, Bowie knife-fighting dojos popped up all over the frontier, from Mississippi and Arkansas to Texas. The Red River Herald of Natchitoches, Louisiana, reported, &ldquoAll the steel in [this] country it seemed was immediately converted into Bowie knives.&rdquo British steel companies recognized the opportunity and flooded the American market with knives, some of whose blades were etched with bloodthirsty, patriotic slogans like &ldquoPatriot&rsquos Self Defender,&rdquo &ldquoDeath to Abolition,&rdquo &ldquoDeath to Traitors,&rdquo &ldquoAmericans Never Surrender,&rdquo and, according to the Texas State Historical Association, even the purely sociopathic declaration &ldquoI&rsquom A Real Ripper.&rdquo A Mississippi newspaper took inspiration from the craze by naming itself The Bowie Knife, with the motto, &ldquoYou touch, and we pierce.&rdquo

Over a century later, similar words were spoken by an Englishman born David Robert Jones. &ldquoThe name Bowie just appealed to me when I was younger,&rdquo David Bowie once said to William Burroughs, Beat Generation cult writer (and one-time Texan pot farmer). &ldquoI was into a kind of heavy philosophy thing when I was sixteen years old, and I wanted a truism about cutting through the lies and all that.&rdquo

Two years later, Bowie told Ľudia that he settled on the name because it was &ldquothe ultimate American knife,&rdquo and claimed that the persona it created in him was &ldquothe medium for a conglomerate of statements and illusions. I have no confidence in David Jones as a public figure.&rdquo

Bowie&rsquos homage wasn&rsquot the only Alamo fandom from across the pond. John Wayne&rsquos 1960 film and Jim Bowie, a 1950s TV show, spurred an Alamo craze in early 1960s Britain. Phil Collins has a singular obsession with the place. The Rolling Stones draped themselves in Confederate and U.K. flags before it on a 1975 tour. Donovan, once billed as &ldquothe British Bob Dylan,&rdquo wrote a song called &ldquoRemember the Alamo&rdquo (in which he pronounces James Bowie&rsquos name in the &ldquosnowy&rdquo manner). And, of course, there was Ozzy Osbourne&rsquos fiasco of drunken stupidity.

When the singer adopted the Alamo fighter&rsquos name, he pronounced it &ldquoBow-ey,&rdquo to rhyme with &ldquoshowy.&rdquo This is confusingly verified by the fact that he named his son Zowie Bowie, but pronounced that first name as &ldquoZo&rdquo rather than &ldquoZow-ee.&rdquo

Even so, half of England pronounced his stage name as if rhymed with &ldquowow-ee.&rdquo It was enough to befuddle even David himself.

In 2000, a BBC interviewer asked him if he felt more like &ldquoBowie [pronounced like &lsquowow-ee&rsquo] or as David Jones, the boy from South London?&rdquo

&ldquoLess and less as Bowie [like &lsquoboh-ee&rsquo], Bowie [like &lsquowow-ee&rsquo], Bowie [like &lsquoboo-ee&rsquo] &ndash I don&rsquot even know how to pronounce it any more, I&rsquove lost track,&rdquo he replied. &ldquoI always thought it was &lsquoboh-ee,&rsquo I thought it&rsquos a Scottish name, it must be &lsquoboh-ee,&rsquo but no-one in Scotland pronounces it like that, they pronounce it &lsquoboo-ee&rsquo I think.&rdquo

Indeed they do, as in the Scottish liqueur Drambuie. &ldquoDram&rdquo means drink in Scottish Gaelic, and &ldquoBuie&rdquo (rhymes with gooey) is a variant on buidhe, the same root word that gives us the surname Bowie. According to company legend, the honeyed and herbed Scotch whiskey-based liqueur&rsquos name means &ldquothe drink that satisfies,&rdquo so in that sense, with &ldquodram&rdquo meaning drink, &ldquobuie&rdquo must mean satisfaction. According to the surname history for the name Bowie, that same root word means &ldquofair-haired&rdquo (which describes both Bowies, James and David).

Today, there are scant similarities between the singer and the American folk hero, beyond a propensity to live large. (There is no evidence of a decade of cocaine use from James Bowie, but he was known to sample more than a dram or five at one sitting, and loved to gamble.) The Texan Bowie is viewed by some as an imperialist conqueror, and it is universally acknowledged that he was not just a slave-owner, but also a slave smuggler, a profession seen as distasteful even in the Antebellum South. That&rsquos a far cry from David Bowie, bisexual and androgynous creator of anthems that resonated most strongly with theater kids (and theater kids at heart) on both sides of the Atlantic.

But there is one last big picture quality they had in common: they were both as edgy in their own way as the knife James gave his name to and from which David took his. That&rsquos true no matter how you slice the name &ldquoBowie&rdquo&mdashwhich we Texans, who can now legally own Bowie knives again after last year&rsquos House Bill 1935, pronounce right.


History of the Bowie Knife

The first knife Bowie became famous with was allegedly designed by his brother Rezin in Avoyelles Parish, Louisiana and smithed by blacksmith Jesse Cleft out of an old file. Period court documents do indicate that Rezin Bowie and Cleft were well acquainted with one another. Rezin's grandaughter claimed in an 1885 letter to Louisiana State University that she personally witnessed Cleft make the knife for her grandfather.

This knife became famous as the knife used by Bowie at the Sandbar Fight, which was the famous 1827 duel between Bowie and several men, including a Major Norris Wright of Alexandria, Louisiana. The fight took place on a sandbar in the Mississippi River across from Natchez, Mississippi. In this battle Bowie was stabbed, shot, and beaten half to death but managed to win the fight.

Jim Bowie's older brother John claimed that the knife at the Sandbar Fight was not Cleft's knife, but a knife specifically made for Bowie by a blacksmith named Snowden.

James Black's Bowie Knife

The most famous version of the Bowie knife was designed by Jim Bowie and presented to Arkansas blacksmith James Black in the form of a carved wooden model in December of 1830. Black produced the knife ordered by Bowie, and at the same time created another based on Bowie's original design but with a sharpened edge on the curved top edge of the blade. Black offered Bowie his choice and Bowie chose the modified version. Knives like that one, with a blade shaped like that of the Bowie knife, but with half or more of the back edge sharpened, are today called "Sheffield Bowie" knives, because this blade shape became so popular that cutlery factories in Sheffield, England were mass-producing such knives for export to the US by 1850, usually with a handle made from either hardwood, stag horn, or bone, and sometimes with a guard and other fittings of sterling silver.

Bowie returned, with his knife, to Texas and was involved in a knife fight with three men who had been hired to kill him. Bowie killed the three erstwhile assassins with his new knife and the fame of the knife was established. Legend holds that one man was almost decapitated, the second was disemboweled, and the third had his skull split open. Bowie died at the Battle of the Alamo five years later and both he and his knife became immensely famous. The fate of the original Bowie knife is unknown, however a knife bearing the engraving "Bowie No. 1" has been acquired by the Historic Arkansas Museum from a Texas collector and has been attributed to Black through scientific analysis.

Black soon did a booming business making and selling these knives out of his Washington, Arkansas shop. Black continued to refine his technique and improve the quality of the knife as he went. In 1839, Black was nearly blinded by an attacker and was no longer able to continue in his trade.

Black's knives were known to be exceedingly tough, yet flexible, and his technique has not been duplicated. Black kept his technique secret and did all of his work behind a leather curtain. Many claim that Black rediscovered the secret to producing true Damascus steel.

In 1870 at the age of 70, Black attempted to pass on his secret to the son of the family that had cared for him in his old age, Daniel Webster Jones. But Black had been retired for many years and found that he himself had forgotten the secret. The only thing Black could remember was that ten separate steps were involved. Jones would later become Governor of Arkansas.

Other Bowie Knives

Over the years many knives have been called Bowie knives and the term has almost become a generic term for any large sheath knife. During the early days of the American Civil War Confederate soldiers carried immense knives called D-Guard Bowie knives. Many of these knives could have qualified as short swords and were often made at home from old saw or scythe blades.

The Bowie knife is sometimes confused with the "Arkansas toothpick". The toothpick is essentially a heavy dagger with a straight 15-25 inch blade. The toothpick is balanced and weighted for throwing and can also be used for thrusting and slashing. James Black is also credited with inventing the "Arkansas Toothpick" but no firm evidence exists for this claim.

In recent years the Bowie style knife has sometimes been referred to as the Buck knife, for the Buck Knife Company.


JIM BOWIE

I thought I would continue the Bowie thread here since it is getting rediculously long, and I have some questions. We apparently have several people that know a considerable amount about bowies, and I'm definitely not one of them, so here are my questions:

What was the size of the original Bowie?

What ended up being the most common size, thereafter?

I noticed that the Smithsonian Randall Bowie is 3/8 inch thick. Was this typical bowie knife thickness?

What was the orignal style bowie most like? Bagwell, Cold Steel, Randal? atď.

I'm trying to understand the bowie styles a little better.

FullerH

I have decided not to let others put down my interests. I have felt and tried the balance of the Randall Smithsonian Bowie. It may not be the ultimate, I have not felt the balance of a Bagwell blade, but it is surprisingly well balanced and fast. Sort of like a well balanced broadsword, if you follow me. The knife may not be historical, but it is a dead-on copy of the "Iron Mistress" blade that was also used in the Jim Bowie tv show and, I believe, in John Wayne's film "The Alamo". All of these are a part of my youth and what got me interested in knives, so I still yearn for one. I may actually get one one day. Right now, I am looking into the Bart Moore Bowie that Mr. Fisk put me onto. As I said before, this knife was reputedly carried out of the Alamo by a Mexican officer and there are some other indications that it may have been Jim's knife. It is a most impressive weapon and, forged or not, a fascinating piece. Another form of Bowie is the Searle Bowie. G.D. Searle was a knifesmith in Baton Rouge, LA, and made a number of knives in a pattern of the Mediterranean Dagger, a sort of butcher knife shape. Dixie Gun Works has one, the stud sheath being extra, that is a very good replica. I would be careful of the Bowies, including a Searle Bowie, sold by Atlanta Cutlery, if what I have heard of the quality of their swords is true. In any case, Rezin Bowie, Jim's brother liked the Searle Bowies and, apparently gave them to friends as gifts. I have read that the knife that Jim carried at the Sandbar Fight was a Searle Bowie.

Lightninjoe

Very interesting! As a San Antonio native, I have seen the original Bowie many times at the Alamo. It is displayed under glass for all to see and it is AWSOME. I can't tell you any specifics abou the knife, but I can tell you that it is not pretty in the usual sense. What does strike you though, is the thought of how many people he fought with it and how many Mexican soldiers he killed with it. The Alamo is, of course, a shrine so you can't take pictures inside except on Texas Independence Day( PeeWee be damned) but you might find some on the web.
Joe "I Say Secede. " Rosenthal

National Living Treasure & Subject Matter Expert

Kobalt
The knife that James Bowie was handed at the sandbar duel was a butcher knife made on the farm by their blacksmith Snowden.

The Bowies, James and Rezin had several "Bowie" knives made for them to be presented to various people. A couple of these would be Shively and Searles. Both of these are essitenialy straight backed with some degrees of differences.
While traveling to Arkansas James stopped in Washington Arkansas and had James Black make a bowie for him. This one and two others made by Black are documented and two of the knives are on exhibit at the ATR/American Bladesmith Society Hall of Fame and Museum. The big one approx 12inch blade has the name "Bowie #1" engraved on the side plate. It is a coffin handle with the oddity of the handle being placed what looks like upside down. The Bart Moore bowie believed by some people to also belong to Bowie is also on exhibit there. I have played with each of these knives and all have good balance and good w
orkmanship. The designs are much different. As to what big knife he had at the alamo when he fell we will never know. It is acknowledged that he did have one knife with him for sure. The knife was stolen from the Alamo in the 1940's. The sheath remains. It is approx. 6 inches long and apears to be of English orgin. My guess was that is was one of the little silver handled bowies to preform light duties with.
The Searles is on exhibit at the Alamo. They let me play with that as well as the little sheath. The Searles is on exhibit because that is the only knife they have that they can tie to the Bowie family. There are several Searles bowies out there as well as a number of fakes. All of the Searles have very good workmanship.
It is generally accepted that "The Bowie" was generally 9 inches to 9 1/2" long in blade length. When Shieffield got into the act of making bowies and sending them over here they got to making the blades longer and with many logos etched on the sides of the blade to attract clients. Much as makers do today. By the time the civil got here and finished the bowies had gotten smaller. Most bowies made after the war are much smaller. A lot of 6 inch blades etc. A few large ones were still put out.
Most of the bowies were not thick in the spine. I have seen only a few that were measured at 3/8" thick. The Iron Mistress was made for a movie even though people think of it as historical. I have handled that knife as well it is also 3/8" thick. Most of the ones I have handled were 1/4" or less in spine thickness.
During the late 30's and through the 40's the blades were at that largest size and most popular. Even the collectors of today that collect the old bowies give more for the bowies from this time period.
The term bowie knife came to be associated with any large knife. It did not even have to have a clip on it. I have seen as many bowies with a false edge as I have with a sharpened top edge. Probally a bit more with the false edge. There are literaly hundreds of bowie patterns out there from the last century. Hundreds more varations from modern makers. I have access to two of the orginial blue print books from the Joesph Rogers Co. that was in Shiefield and they show several hundred themselves.
My standard bowie I make is from a Noah Smithwick style. He as an old Texas Ranger. However I do get up the occasional orginial style that I like since there are hundreds to choose from.
The ones claiming fame to being the one he had when he died is the Musso Bowie, The Bart Moore Bowie and the Bowie #1. The Edwin Forrest bowie is also claiming to be an orginial owned by bowie. Of these all the Bowie #1 is the only one I agree with being owned by bowie. No telling what he died with in his hand.
The only man that we can be sure of he killed with a knife is at the sandbar duel. They have not been able to prove any others.
This is all my opinion. There may be better sources that this out here.
On april 30 we are having a James Bowie/Bowie knife symposium at the ABS knife shool. I should learn more then.
We are also having our annual spring cutting competetion. That should be a hoot. This spring it is Camp knife or Bowie knife, their chose. I have some new things for them to try. Hope this helped some. If not I can try and scratch my head again.
Sorry for all of the bad spelling. Bol som chorý v deň, keď mali na gymnáziu pravopis. fisk

Expert na národný živý poklad a zosilňovač

Kobalt

Fuller, videl som Smithsonian a je to sakra ostrie. Nepotrebujete to ani nabrúsiť. Blunt, stále by to poškodilo čokoľvek pred ním. Páči sa mi to

Jerry, okolo sa vznáša toľko štýlov bowie, že som nikdy nedokázal zbaliť pôvodný štýl. Vždy som si napríklad myslel, že typickým štýlom je štýl podobný tvaru motýlika Ontario Marine Raider Bowie. Ale podľa toho, čo spomínate, by sa tento štýl zdal byť bližší Bushovej milenke. Spomínam týchto lukostrelcov, pretože to som videl.

Znamená to potom, že luky Bagwell a Blackcloud sú v podstate modernizovaným, vyspelým bojovým lukom, a nie spinoffmi originálu?

Tiež 9 až 10 palcov sa mi zdá ako skutočne dobrá veľkosť čepele, ale vždy tu ľudia hovoria, že originály boli oveľa väčšie, bližšie k 12 palcovým čepeliam. Napriek tomu typický dnes vyrobený bowie má dĺžku čepele približne 9 až 10 palcov.


60 rokov Predtým

V tento deň roku 1957 USA odpálilo 1,7 kilotonovú jadrovú zbraň v podzemnom tuneli na testovacom mieste Nevada (NTS), výskumnom centre s rozlohou 1 375 štvorcových míľ, ktoré sa nachádza 65 míľ severne od Las Vegas. Test, známy ako Rainier, bol prvou úplne zadržanou podzemnou detonáciou a nepriniesol žiadny rádioaktívny spad. Na test bola použitá modifikovaná hlavica W-25 s hmotnosťou 218 libier a priemerom 25,7 palcov a dĺžkou 17,4 palcov. Rainier bol súčasťou série 29 testov bezpečnosti jadrových zbraní a jadrových zbraní známych ako operácia Plumbbob, ktoré boli vykonané na NTS od 28. mája 1957 do 7. októbra 1957.


Pozri si video: Chuck Bowers - Big Jim Bowie